Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use.
This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army’s total firepower.
The Word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or Armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word “artillery” has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, rockets and guided missiles.
Indian Army has a wide range of Artillery Systems in its Arsenal through which, Army can obliterate Anything in its path.
Here are 11 Deadly Artillery Systems in the Arsenal of Indian Army:
BM-21 is a Truck Mounted Multi Barrel Rocket launcher (MBRL) developed by the Soviet Union in the 1960’s.BM-21 is able to launch M-21 OF Rockets at a maximum Distance of 35 km’s.The three-member crew can emplace the system and have it ready to fire in three minutes. The crew can fire the rockets from the cab or from a trigger at the end of a 64-meter (210 ft) cable.All 40 Rockets can be fired in under 20 seconds with a rate of fire being just 1 rocket per 2 seconds.
Despite being a military hardware of the 60’s, Bm-21 is amongst the most used MBRL in the World.Indian Army has 150+ of these which are going to be replaced by indigenous Pinaka MBRL.
2. Pinaka MBRL
Developed by the Defence Research and Development Organization for the Indian Army, Pinaka MBRL is a multiple rocket launcher and is manufactured under Tata Power SED, Larsen & Toubro and Ordnance Factories Board. Presently India has more than 80 Pinaka MBRL and will be replacing the 122 mm BM-21. The rocket launcher was produced in 1998 and included in the 1999 Kargil war. Available in three diesel variants of 40k/hr, 60km/hr and120 km/hr (in development), and the rocket launcher has a calibre of 214mm with 12 barrels totaling the warhead weight up to 250 kg. The rocket launcher fires 12 rockets in less than 44 seconds and has a maximum firing range of 60km.
3. 9A52-2T (BM-30 Smerch)
The BM-30 Smerch is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. The system is designed to defeat personnel, armored, and soft-skinned targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was created in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989.
BM-30 can fire 12 of its 300mm rockets in just 38 seconds over a distance of 90 kilometres. Indian Army is armed with a variant of BM-30 known as 9A52-2T.The Launcher in Indian Version is mounted on TATRA trucks. Indian Army has 62 of these which in future will be replaced by indigenous Pinaka MBRL Mk3.
4. K9 VAJRA-T
The K9 VAJRA is a South Korean self-propelled 155 mm howitzer developed by Samsung Techwin for the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. It was developed to supplement and then replace the K55 self-propelled howitzers in South Korean service. K9 howitzers operate in groups with the K10 automatic ammunition resupply vehicle.
K9 requires a crew of 5 (Commander, Driver, Gunner, 2 Loaders) to operate.Its maximum Firing range is between 30 to 50 kms.
K9 VAJRA-T is a variant of the K9 Thunder specially designed for operation in the desert areas bordering Pakistan. India has not had any new artillery pieces since the 1980s and several rounds of modernization plans since 1999 had failed to select a gun. India has been at a distinct disadvantage against Pakistan in SPGs since the United States supplied them with 115 M109A5 cannons in 2009.
India has ordered 100 such Systems.
5. 2S1 Gvozdika
Developed by the Russian army, 2S1 Gvozdika is designed to operate on snowy and swampy conditions. India presently has 110 units of 2S1 Gvozdika.
A 2S1 Gvozdika weighs nearly 16 tonnes with 7.26 m in length, 2.85 m in width and 2.73 m in height and can carry a crew of four. 2S1 Gvozdika has 20 mm armour and uses separate loading cased charged shells with a calibre of 122mm and semi-automatic horizontal sliding wedge breech.
Powered by YaMZ-238N diesel engine, 2S1 has a road speed of 60km/h and an operational range of 500 km. producing a muzzle velocity of 680m/s and a maximum firing rate of 5 rpm, 2S1 has a traverse of 360 degrees and a maximum firing range of 21.9 km.
It is amphibious which means it can also float on water.
6. FV433 Abbot SPG
Designed by the British Army, FV433 Abbot SPG is a self-propelled artillery variant of the British Army FV430 series. The vehicle is currently used only the British and Indian Army and there are presently near about 80 units with the Indian Army.
The vehicle weighs 16.56 tonnes with 5.8 m in length, 2.6 m in width, and 2.5 mm in height and can carry a total of 6 crew members. Protected with a 12mm plate armour, the vehicle can carry 105 mm L13A1 gun (40 rounds), 7.62 mm L4A4 MG with 1,200 rounds and smoke dischargers. With Rolls-Royce K60 Mk 4G multi-fuel opposed piston engine, the vehicle produces a power of 240 bhp @ 3750 rpm and a speed of 47 km/h and an operational range of 480 km.
Protected with a 12mm plate armour, the vehicle can carry 105 mm L13A1 gun (40 rounds), 7.62 mm L4A4 MG with 1,200 rounds and smoke dischargers. With Rolls-Royce K60 Mk 4G multi-fuel opposed piston engine, the vehicle produces a power of 240 bhp @ 3750 rpm and a speed of 47 km/h and an operational range of 480 km.
7. OFB 105mm SPG
OFB 105mm SPG is an Indian self-propelled tracked artillery. It has been Developed & Manufactured by Ordnance development centre, Ordnance Factory Medak.
The weapon is based on Sarath’s (License produced variant of Russian BMP-2) hull mounted with Indian towed 105 mm Light field Gun (LFG). The system can stow 42 rounds of ammunition. The artillery can be used to destroy enemy fortification and also in an anti-tank role.
It is operated by a crew of 5. It is able to fire 4-6 rounds per minute.
A GPS have been provided for navigation. The turret provides level-3 protection for the crew. It was first displayed in February 2010 during DEFEXPO-2010 in New Delhi and it is planned to replace the FV433 Abbot SPG in the Indian army. TALIN 500 Inertial Navigation System can also be installed to navigate in regions where GPS is unavailable due to terrain masking or enemy jamming. ammunition carrying capacity can also be increased to 92 rounds.
8. Sprut anti-tank gun
Created in the late 1980s, Sprut anti-tank gun is one of the best in the field with an integrated engine that makes the gun movable through any terrain. The gun is self-moving, self-propelled and is capable of attacking at night with its 1PN53-1 night vision sight. It is amphibious so it can float on water. The gun weighs nearly 15000 lb and has a length of 7.12 m with a barrel of .925m and width of 2.66m. The gun has a calibre of 125 mm and hydro-pneumatic recoil with a tripod carriage. With an elevation of -6° to 25° and traverse of 360°, the gun has an impressive firing rate of 6-8 rpm and speed of nearly 14km/h. the gun has an effective range of 2000m-5000m and an operational range of 50km.
The gun weighs nearly 15000 lb and has a length of 7.12 m with a barrel of .925m and width of 2.66m. The gun has a calibre of 125 mm and hydro-pneumatic recoil with a tripod carriage. With an elevation of -6° to 25° and traverse of 360°, the gun has an impressive firing rate of 6-8 rpm and speed of nearly 14km/h. the gun has an effective range of 2000m-5000m and an operational range of 50km.
9. 88mm 25 Pounder
With almost 75 years of warfare service, 88mm 25 Pounder is a dual-purpose British field gun and howitzer that was introduced into service just before World War II. The pounder is a common artillery weapon among the Commonwealth Nations. The field gun weighs 1,633 kg and ahs a length of 4.6m with a barrel of 2.47m long and 1.16m wide. It uses high explosive anti-tank shells that can weigh up to 11.5 kg with the fuse. Moreover, the gun has a calibre of 87.6mm and vertical sliding block breech with hydro-pneumatic recoil. The gun has a range of firing rates, from 6-8 rpm in a gunfire to 4 rpm in rapid fire and 1 rpm in a very slow fire. Producing a muzzle velocity of 198 – 532m/s the gun has a maximum firing range of 12,253 m.
10. 180 mm Gun S-23
Designed and developed by USSR during the Cold War era, 180 mm gun S-23 is a Soviet heavy gun, which was designed by NII-58 and later exported to the Indian Army. Presently, there are nearly 100 180 mm gun S-23 in Indian arsenal and is one of the eleven towed artilleries with the army. The big gun has a length of 10.48 m (34 ft 5 in) with
The big gun has a length of 10.48 m (34 ft 5 in) with the barrel and weighs approximately 21,450 kg. With the barrel length of 8.8m and a width of 2.99m, the gun uses HE, Nuclear-Capable shells and produces a striking muzzle velocity of 850m/s. the gun has an elevation of -2° to +50° and fire at a rate of 1 rpm maximum or 1 round every two minutes sustained in an effective range of 30.4 km to a maximum of 43.8 km.
11. 155mm Field Howitzer 77B
Developed and manufactured by Bofors, 155mm Field Howitzer 77B is the exported version of a Swedish 155 mm howitzer. The gun was designed as a replacement oF the French Haubits F by the Swedish army and 410 FH77 B were exported to the Indian army out of which on 200 are presently left in service.
The gun can fire 3 rounds in 8 seconds and 6 rounds in 25 seconds. With an imposing muzzle velocity of 300 to 770 m/s, the gun has an effective firing range of 21 km to a maximum of 27.4 km.